The Javanese language is spoken mainly on the island of Java in Indonesia. It is related to the Malay, Sundanese, and Madurese languages and is the most spoken language in Indonesia.
Javanese has five distinct dialects, which – depending on the area – differ in terms of vocabulary and pronunciation nuances.
Javanese is an agglutinative language with a complex system of honorifics and politeness levels.
Javanese is written using a basic Latin-based script modified to account for the language's specific phonetic qualities.
Javanese is a tonal language that uses nasal sounds, and glottal stops widely.
A distinctive feature of Javanese vocabulary is its emphasis on poetic imagery, contributing to its melodic and lyrical style.
Javanese has many loanwords from Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, and Dutch.
Although modern Javanese does not use complex compounds, it does employ a few serial verb constructions.
Javanese is an ergative-absolutive language, meaning its grammar functions differently depending on whether the sentence's subject is active or passive.
Javanese is ranked 3rd on the Ethnologue's list of the world's major languages, with 91 million speakers.
A formal style of Javanese, known as kromo, is used for formal occasions, ceremonies, and religious rituals.