Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is an umbrella term used to describe a wide range of diseases that form when abnormal cells grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner.
Cancer arises from genetic mutations in individual cells and can spread between them to form a tumor. Environmental factors, such as exposure to carcinogenic substances or radiation, can cause these mutations.
Specific types of cancer often develop in certain organs, such as lung cancer, breast cancer in the breast, or melanoma in the skin.
Metastatic cancer occurs when cancer cells break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to settle in other body parts.
Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment in which radiation targets and destroys cancer cells.
Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment, which means it reaches cancer cells throughout the body, not just those in the primary tumor.
Surgery may be used to remove the primary tumor and any visible cancer cells.
Immunotherapy uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells, often with the help of drugs.
Hormone therapy uses drugs or other substances to block the action of hormones, reducing cell growth and tumor size.
Stem cell transplants are also used to generate a new immune system in patients with certain types of cancer.
Targeted therapy uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells and stop them from growing and dividing.